Photovoltaics on the rooftop ielts reading answers

Hi, I'm Liz. Below is a model answer. The model answer is estimated at band score 9. The diagram illustrates how an Australian town collects rainwater to process in order to use as drinking water. Overall, rainwater collected from houses can be used for drinking after it has been processed by being filtered and then being treated with chemicals. Initially, the rain which falls on the rooftop is collected by the gutter and then runs down the pipe at the side of the house into the drain at the bottom.

Each house collects rainwater in this way and the rainwater is then passed along underground drains to the water filter.

IELTS Academic Reading Test 3. Section 1

The rainwater passes through the water filter to remove any impurities. Once it has been filtered, it continues along the pipes to a storage tank. From this point, the water goes from storage to the water treatment. At this stage of the process, the water is treated with chemicals in order to make it fit for consumption. Line Graph Model: Consumption of Spreads.

Reading 5 - Passage 2

Table Model: Consumer Spending. Email Address. The diagram illustrate that how the australian town treats rainwater and converts it into drinking water with the help of advance technology.

Overall, diagram gives the knowledge about the process of collecting and converting rainwater to drinking water with the process of passing the water through drain pipes, water filter unit and chemical process plant. During rainy days, rainwater is collecting from rooftops with help of drain system which transfer the rainwater into water filter units which removes impurities after that water is store in storage tank.

From the storage tank water send for water treatment process in water treatment unit with the help of chemicals after that water is ready for consumption. The pure water is then supply to houses through the pipes and ready to use in daily routine. The diagram demonstrates how people in Australian towns collect rainwater processes to use as drinking water. First of all, the rain collected by the gutter on the roof and runs through the pips down the every house. Then runs to the storage bypassing the water filters.

After that water is collected to the water treatment process through the pips where the water is treated by chemicals for consumptions. In the end, water will be ready for drinking and distributed bypassing the pips to every house back. The digram illustrates the methods for collecting rainwater for the purpose of drinking by an Australian town.Opportunities to use alternative, renewable energy sources will continue to expand rapidly, and solar energy is at the forefront of this movement.

Managers do not want to miss out on the benefits of such technologies as photovoltaic PV roofing systems. Financial savings. The cost savings created by reduced electricity use typically are not a cost-effective payback that offsets the upfront cost of purchasing and installing a PV roofing system, unless the federal government and some state governments and utilities offer financial incentives, such as tax credits and subsidy programs.

Even as the cost of solar cells continues to drop, the upfront cost of buying and installing a PV system remains prohibitive for many institutional and commercial facilities. This situation has led to the development of solar power purchase agreements SPPAa financial arrangement between a third-party developer that installs, owns, operates, and maintains the PV system for the organization.

The organization agrees to host the PV system on the roof or property and to buy the electricity from the provider for a predetermined period. This set-up allows the host customer to receive electricity at a predictable cost, with the potential to have a positive cash flow via reduced electrical costs from the day the system goes into service.

The solar provider receives the tax credits and the income the sale of the electricity generates. Environmental advantages. PV systems are renewable, clean and universal power sources. Solar energy helps prevent damage to the environment by producing no pollution.

A 2-kilowatt system will reduce carbon-dioxide emissions by 85, pounds over its lifetime, according to some estimates. A PV system with a battery-powered storage system can provide power to facilities in the event of an electrical outage. Hedge against rate hikes.

PV systems are less vulnerable to electrical rate increases, which have averaged about 6 percent in recent years. The PV panels produce electricity at a fixed rate over the life of the system. The cost of solar cells — primarily, the main component, silicon — also has been dropping quite dramatically recently. Peak energy savings. PV systems can reduce the cost of peak power.

A PV system produces the most power in the summer at mid-day, when the sun is highest. So it supplements the need for expensive power at peak operating times. Public relations. PV technology can have a legitimate, positive influence on the general public, which might think more highly of the organization for taking action to protect and improve the environment. National security. Before planning for the design and installation of a PV roof, managers first need to answer two important questions.

First, is it even practical to consider the installation of a PV system, based on the existing physical characteristics of the project site?Which TWO activities that volunteers do are mentioned?

Which TWO ways that volunteers can benefit from volunteering are mentioned? What has each of the following volunteers helped someone to do? It consists of around 21 …………………… students. It is due to play in a 22 ……………………. They have listened to a talk by a 24 …………………….

Joe will discuss a 25 ……………………. Joe hopes the band will attend a 26 …………………… next month. What problem does Joe mention in connection with each of the following band members?

Concerts in university arts festival. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Cambridge Reading Tests. Writing Task 2 Topic Date available weekend beginning February 4th Conference facilities the 1 …………………. Other facilities The hotel also has a spa and rooftop 7 ………………….

Location Wilby Street quite near the 9 …………………… near to restaurants and many 10 ……………………. Background on school marching band It consists of around 21 …………………… students.

Questions What problem does Joe mention in connection with each of the following band members? Concerts in university arts festival Concert 1 Australian composer: Liza Lim studied piano and 31 …………………. Concert 3 Australian composer: Carl Vine played cornet then piano studied 38 …………………….

Section 1 1. Tesla 2. B, E Section 3 Section 4 Submit a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Search for:.On 2nd Augusta particularly hot day in the town of Cirencester in the UK, a large pane of toughened glass in the roof of a shopping centre at Bishops Walk shattered without warning and fell from its frame.

When fragments were analysed by experts at the giant glass manufacturer Pilkington, which had made the pane, they found that minute crystals of nickel sulphide trapped inside the glass had almost certainly caused the failure.

But he insists that cases are few and far between. Others disagree.

photovoltaics on the rooftop ielts reading answers

Other experts tell of similar experiences. Toughened glass is found everywhere, from cars and bus shelters to the windows, walls and roofs of thousands of buildings around the world. It's easy to see why. This glass has five times the strength of standard glass, and when it does break it shatters into tiny cubes rather than large, razor-sharp shards.

Architects love it because large panels can be bolted together to make transparent walls, and turning it into ceilings and floors is almost as easy. This causes the outer layer of the pane to contract and solidify before the interior. When the interior finally solidifies and shrinks, it exerts a pull on the outer layer that leaves it in permanent compression and produces a tensile force inside the glass.

As cracks propagate best in materials under tension, the compressive force on the surface must be overcome before the pane will break, making it more resistant to cracking. The problem starts when glass contains nickel sulphide impurities. Trace amounts of nickel and sulphur are usually present in the raw materials used to make glass, and nickel can also be introduced by fragments of nickel alloys falling into the molten glass.

As the glass is heated, these atoms react to form tiny crystals of nickel sulphide. Just a tenth of a gram of nickel in the furnace can create up to 50, crystals. These crystals can exist in two forms: a dense form called the alpha phase, which is stable at high temperatures, and a less dense form called the beta phase, which is stable at room temperatures. The high temperatures used in the toughening process convert all the crystals to the dense, compact alpha form.

But the subsequent cooling is so rapid that the crystals don't have time to change back to the beta phase. This leaves unstable alpha crystals in the glass, primed like a coiled spring, ready to revert to the beta phase without warning. And if they are within the central, tensile region of the pane, the stresses this unleashes can shatter the whole sheet.

The time that elapses before failure occurs is unpredictable. It could happen just months after manufacture, or decades later, although if the glass is heated - by sunlight, for example - the process is speeded up. Ironically, says Graham Dodd, of consulting engineers Arup in London, the oldest pane of toughened glass known to have failed due to nickel sulphide inclusions was in Pilkington's glass research building in Lathom, Lancashire.

photovoltaics on the rooftop ielts reading answers

The pane was 27 years old. Data showing the scale of the nickel sulphide problem is almost impossible to find.Found a mistake? Let us know! Share this Practice Test. Have a look at this diagram, which represents solar panels fixed to the roof of a house. It is typical of any system which uses a solar panel to provide hot water. So how does it work?

We also receive invisible radiation, which is known as infra red. A lot of this radiation passes through the glass at the front of the solar panel - here on the roof - and hits the surface at the back. This surface is black, because black is good at absorbing radiation, and so the black surface becomes hot. Energy in the form of heat is conducted along the back of the solar panel to these copper pipes. This can be either oil or waterthough oil is usually used.

Exam Review

The oil expands and rises up the pipe into the energy exchanger, which is located - up here - in the water tank. Sometimes we have to use a pump as well, to help the liquid along. Look at the diagram of a solar heating system and see what parts you will need to label. Please descibe the mistake as details as possible along with your expected correction, leave your email so we can contact with you when needed.

Please enter description. Please enter a valid email. Solution for: A solar heating system Answer Table 1. Follow us on Facebook Mini ielts. A solar heating system.

What Are the Benefits of Photovoltaic Roofing?

Questions Look at the diagram of a solar heating system and see what parts you will need to label. Listen to a talk about solar energy and complete the labels as you listen. Other Tests. Total questions: Events during Kenton Festival. The spirit bear. Total questions: 6. Consequences of Super Volcanoes. Rocky Bay field trip.

Maritime Museum. Total questions: 9. A balanced diet. Describe what is wrong with the practice test: Please enter description. Enter your name:.

Enter your email address: Please enter a valid email. Thank you! We will get back to you shortly. Send Close.Prior to the Second World War, all the management books ever written could be comfortably stacked on a couple of shelves. Today, you would need a sizeable library, with plenty of room for expansion, to house them. The last few decades have seen the stream of new titles swell into a flood.

Inbusiness books were published. Bythe total for the year had risen to 3, and the trend continues. The growth in publishing activity has followed the rise and rise of management to the point where it constitutes a mini-industry in its own right. Management consultancies, professional bodies and business schools were part of this new phenomenon, all sharing at least one common need: to get into print. Nor were they the only aspiring authors. Inside stories by and about business leaders balanced the more straight-laced textbooks by academics.

How-to books by practising managers and business writers appeared on everything from making a presentation to developing a business strategy. With this upsurge in output, it is not really surprising that the quality is uneven. She is also the books editor of The Director. Of course, it is normally the best of the bunch that are reviewed in the pages of The Director. A lot is pretty depressing, unimpressive stuff.

Although the confusing thing is that the really ambitious stuff can sometimes be drivel. There are some possible explanations. Despite the attempts of Frederick Taylor, the early twentieth-century founder of scientific management, to establish a solid, rule-based foundation for the practice, management has come to be seen as just as much an art as a science. Add to that the requirement for management to reflect the changing demands of the times, the impact of information technology and other factors, and it is easy to understand why management is in a permanent state of confusion.

The Next Big Idea.

photovoltaics on the rooftop ielts reading answers

Yet the early euphoria with which such books are greeted tends to wear off as the basis for the claims starts to look less than solid. In the case of In Search of Excellence, it was the rapid reversal of fortunes that turned several of the exemplar companies into basket cases.

Yet one of the virtues of these books is that they could be understood. There is a whole class of management texts that fail this basic test.

It disguises the paucity of thought. By contrast, the management thinkers who have stood the test of time articulate their ideas in plain English. Peter Drucker, widely regarded as the doyen of management thinkers, has written a steady stream of influential books over half a century.

Caulkin also agrees that Drucker reaches out to a wider readership. List of Books A. Guide to the Management Gurus B.The reading test contains 3 sections. Now you're on the page with section 1. Read the text, answer all the questions and click "check" to see your mistakes. After that, you can proceed to the next section. You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1—14which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. C Worry is increasing over the problems facing Ireland'sstudents as the number increases over the next 15 years.

E Claims have emerged from the country that some students have been forced to sleep in cars, or out on the streets, because of the enormous increases to rent in the capital. Choose the most suitable paragraph headings from the list of headings and write the correct letter, A—Hin boxes 1—8 on your answer sheet.

Cons of the commuting. Thing that students have to go through. Commutes have become common in Ireland nowadays. Danger of the overflow. Cause of the problems. Pricing data. Eyeless choice. The accommodation problem in Ireland is especially bad in Dublin.

Commutes are considered ridiculous. The number of students in Ireland is not likely to increase in the future. Due to the opening of the new offices around Dublin, the number of local restaurants will go up significantly over the next 3 to 10 years. Michael Martin stated that crisis could have been omitted if the government reacted properly. Each question correctly answered scores 1 mark.

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